Essential basic knowledge of paint and coating

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Paint, customarily we also call it paint. Whether it is high-grade decoration or ordinary decoration, paint will be used. The first function of paint is to protect the surface, and the second function is to modify it. For wood products, because the surface of wood products belongs to porous structure, it is not resistant to dirt, and the surface has many knots, which is not beautiful.

paint, we used to call it paint. Whether it is high-grade decoration or ordinary decoration, paint will be used. The first function of paint is to protect the surface, and the second function is to modify it. For wood products, because the surface of wood products is porous structure, it is not resistant to dirt, and the surface has many knots, which is not beautiful enough. Paint can solve these problems at the same time

here are the types, choices and precautions of paints. Of course, because there are too many kinds of paint, we only introduce the part that belongs to decoration

1. Classification of paint

1) classification by part. Paint is mainly divided into wall paint, wood paint and metal paint. Wall paint includes exterior wall paint, interior wall paint and topcoat, mainly latex paint and other varieties; Wood paint mainly includes nitrocellulose paint, polyurethane paint, etc; Metallic paint is mainly enamel

2) classification by status. Paint can be divided into water-based paint and oil-based paint. Emulsion paint is the main water-based paint, while nitrate paint and polyurethane paint are mostly oil-based paint

3) classified by function. Paint can be divided into waterproof paint, fireproof paint, mildew proof paint, mosquito proof paint and multifunctional paint with multiple functions

4) classified by action form. Paint can be divided into volatile paint and non-volatile paint

5) classified by surface effect. Paint can be divided into transparent paint, translucent paint and opaque paint

2. Type of paint

1) wood paint

(1) nitrocellulose varnish. Nitrocellulose varnish is a kind of transparent paint made from nitrocellulose, alkyd resin, plasticizer and organic solvent. It is a volatile paint and has the characteristics of fast drying and soft gloss. Nitrocellulose varnish is divided into bright, semi matte and matte, which can be selected according to needs. Nitrocellulose paint also has its disadvantages: it is easy to whiten in high wet weather, low fullness and low hardness

(2) hand brushing. Nitrocellulose varnish belongs to nitrocellulose paint, which is a kind of non transparent paint made of nitrocellulose, various synthetic resins, pigments and organic solvents. This paint is specially prepared for manual construction and has fast drying characteristics

(3) main auxiliary agent of nitrocellulose paint:

a. Tianna water. It is a colorless transparent liquid with banana smell, which is mixed with esters, alcohols, benzene, ketones and other organic solvents. It mainly plays the role of mixing nitrolacquer and curing

b. whitening water. Also known as anti white water, its scientific name is ethylene glycol monobutyl ether. During construction in wet weather, the paint film will turn white, which can be eliminated by appropriately adding 10% - 15% diluted nitro magnetized white water

(4) polyester paint. It is a thick paint made of polyester resin as the main film-forming material. The film of polyester paint is plump, thick and hard. Polyester paint also has varnish varieties, called polyester varnish

polyester paint needs to be cured during construction, and the amount of these curing agents accounts for one third of the total amount of paint. These curing agents are also called hardeners, and their main component is TDI (toluene diisocyanate). These TDI in free state will turn yellow, which will not only make furniture paint classic, but also make adjacent walls yellow, which is a major disadvantage of polyester paint. At present, yellowing resistant polyester paint has appeared in the market, but it can only be "yellowing resistant". It can't completely prevent the code from changing. In addition, free TDI beyond the standard will also cause harm to human body

(5) polyurethane paint. Polyurethane paint is polyurethane paint. Its paint film is strong and tough, with full gloss, strong adhesion, water resistance, wear resistance and corrosion resistance. It is widely used in high-grade wood furniture and metal surfaces. Its disadvantages mainly include blistering in case of moisture, chalking of paint film, etc; Like polyester paint, there is also the problem of yellowing. The varnish variety of polyurethane paint is called polyurethane varnish

2) interior wall paint. Interior wall paint is mainly divided into water-soluble paint and emulsion paint. Latex paint is generally used for decoration. Emulsion paint is a kind of lotion paint, which can be divided into two categories: Polyester vinyl lotion and acrylic lotion according to different substrates. Emulsion paint uses water as diluent, which is a kind of paint with convenient construction, safety, water washing resistance and good air permeability. Different colors can be prepared according to different color matching schemes

emulsion paint is mainly composed of water, pigments, lotion, fillers and various additives. These raw materials are non-toxic, and the possible toxic substances are mainly ethylene glycol in film-forming agent and organic mercury in mildew inhibitor

at present, the so-called "latex paint" containing a lot of formaldehyde on the market is actually water-soluble paint, not latex paint. Some illegal manufacturers fake latex paint with low-quality water-soluble paint. Therefore, choosing genuine goods and maintaining ventilation are effective ways to prevent pollution

3) exterior wall paint. The basic performance of exterior wall emulsion paint is similar to that of interior wall emulsion paint. However, the paint film is hard and has stronger water resistance. Exterior wall emulsion paint is generally used on exterior walls, and can also be used in high tide wet places such as toilets. Of course, exterior wall emulsion paint can be used internally, but please don't try to use interior wall emulsion paint externally

4) fire retardant paint. Fire retardant paint is a kind of fire retardant paint made of film-forming agent, fire retardant, foaming agent and other materials. At present, wood, cloth and other flammable materials are widely used, so fire prevention has become a topic worth mentioning

3. Paint selection

(1) choose the appropriate paint according to your own needs. Don't blindly pursue a "high-grade", let alone buy some inferior products for the sake of cheap

(2) try to buy in franchised stores or large stores, and pay attention to the advantages and disadvantages of their packaging

(3) don't trust the data of advertising. What you need to care about is whether the product meets the national standard (GB)

first let's talk about what is clear water and mixed water

clear water

is as clear as water. You can see the bottom of the river, the paint used is transparent, and you can see the color and pattern of the painted surface. Clear water has high requirements for carpentry, and the materials you choose are also very particular. The commonly used clear water plywood includes Fraxinus mandshurica, red beech, white beech, black walnut, red walnut, cherry wood, maple, oak, Shabili, teak, knife wood, Zebra wood, all kinds of technical wood and so on

half clear and half mixed

it is half clear like water. You can see that the river bottom is very fuzzy. The paint used is transparent and painted on the surface of the object with color powder

mixed water

is as mixed as water. You can't see the bottom of the river. The paint is colored. If it is painted on the surface of the object, it can completely cover the painted object

what is called mixing with clean water

is that the method is the same as that of clean water, except that when making paint, after repairing the surface of the coated object, sand it flat, apply a layer of your favorite color, and then paint varnish, and the method in the future is the same as that of clean water




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